Insulin is a hormone that has extensive effects on metabolism and other body functions, such as vascular compliance. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle, and stopping use of fat as an energy source.
The actions of insulin on the global human metabolism level include:
1.Control of cellular intake of certain substances, most prominently glucose in muscle and adipose tissue (about ? of body cells).
2.Increase of DNA replication and protein synthesis via control of amino acid uptake.
3.Modification of the activity of numerous enzymes.